Methods for characterisation and stability evaluation of NPs:

Type of analysis Method Instruments available Parameter measured
Spectroscopy UV-Vis Spectrophotometer UV/VIS, CARY 300 (Varian) Plasmon resonance peak
Fluorescence Spectrofluorometer, LS 45 (Perkin-Elmer) Fluorescence emission and absorption spectra
Atomic absorption spectroscopy Perkin Elmer AAS300 Total elemental composition
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) ICP-MS Agilent 7500cx (Agilent Technologies) Total elemental composition
Microscopy Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) TEM, Zeiss 902A Size and shape
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) FE-SEM Myra II LMU (Tescan) Size and shape
Separation Ultrafiltration Centrifuge (to be purchase) Size
Centrifugation Centrifuge (to be purchase) Sedimentation coefficient
Others Dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic light scattering Malvern Zetasizer 3000 Hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge
Electrochemical method Orion 9616BNWP Silver/Sulfide Electrode Electrical potential
Microplate reader Victor microplate reader Absorbance, fluorescence intensity